When shipping internationally, an common question we get is "what value should we declare." The declared value is, along the the H.S. classification, the  key element of the import process and duty assessment. Over declarations result in needless costs and under-declared values can result in significant fines and legal actions.

 

When sending international shipments, it is important to understand the value that should be applied to your international shipment.

In this blog, we review
  • Transaction value and other valuation methods 
  • Valuation for online orders:  Bulk wholesale versus single entry retail
  • Cost and process advantages: Traditional retail logistics versus  direct online import

 

For importing to most countries, the best declared value is the “transaction value.”   

The transaction value can be loosely defined as the amount paid for the items being imported. But, for many of the international shipments, there is often not an actual transaction value.

Not having a clear transaction value occurs when unsolicited / free commercial samples or warranty items are sent via international courier. When there is, in fact, no financial transaction.  At Jet Worldwide, our customers often send commercial samples or warranty replacement parts where there is not an actual transaction value.

Before sending your international shipments, we advise our customers to consult with the receiver on which value to declare as valuation is most important to import processes.

Although the World Customs Organization (WCO) guidelines are adhered to by all major economies, there can be significant interpretational differences.

 

Key concepts to review when determining the  declared value when sending their international shipments

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Valuation method:  

The most common method of determining the correct declared value is to use the "transaction value:"

  • The transaction value is the price actually paid or payable for the goods when sold for export to the country of importation, with certain adjustments.

The adjustments can include such things as the cost of transportation and insurance. If, for example, you sold an item for $1,000 and cost of transportation and insurance was $90, the transaction value would be $1,090.

Most countries accept the transaction value as the appropriate amount to declare upon import.

Alternatives to using the Transaction Value for international shipments:

Where the Customs value cannot be determined on the basis of the transaction value, it will be determined using one of the following methods:

  • The transaction value of identical goods
  • The transaction value of similar goods
  • The deductive value method
  • The computed value method
  • The fall-back method.

In determining the correct declared value when transaction is not available, the above alternative valuation methods are used by most customs authorities in hierarchical order.    

When declaring a value for your international shipment, the transaction value is mostly just common sense. The following two methods (value of identical or similar goods) are self explanatory.   

Deductive, computed and fall-back methods of valuation can get technical and mostly used only in the case of high value disputes.    Determinate terms include inherent, intrinsic and historic.

For high value, specific commodities and cases where determining the value is not immediately clear, it is critically important to get advice from experienced professionals.   Often, it is best to consult with customs authorities and get a ruling prior to importing the goods.

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COST, INSURANCE, FREIGHT: CIF Value

Virtually all customs authorities consider the "CIF value" as the value to be used when assessing duty and taxes. In addition to the cost of the item, customs also considers the cost of transport and insurance as the dutiable or accessed value.

For example, if the transportation and insurance cost to ship goods worth $1,000 are $200, the CIF value is $1,200. The duty will be assessed is based on $1,200, not $1,000.

For courier and postal shipments, the exact transport cost is often unknown.    When assessing the transport value for parcel imports, most customs applies a standardized cost per kg. (which can be less or more than the actual transport cost).

Wholesale  bulk import versus Retail online transaction

Although online purchases often take advantage of the duty free low value threshold (such as section 321 $800 threshold to the US), online orders are usually at a disadvantage when it comes to duty assessment.     

For example:   An import of thousands of shirts with a wholesale value of $5 per shirt will be assessed on that transaction value.    The same shirt sold retail on line for $20 will be assessed the same duty rate but on the $20 transaction price.

Traditional retail logistics (TRL)  flow versus Direct Online Shipping (DOS)

International online merchants parcel logistics considerations include a variety of factors:

  • Warehousing cost in country of destination versus direct online orders.  Advantage:  DOS
  • Ocean versus direct air freight.   Advantage:  TRL
  • Speed to market and reactivity to market trends:  Advantage DOS
  • Duty free entry for low value (e.g. Section 321 to USA).  Advantage DOS
  • Duty assessment on wholesale versus retail value.   Advantage TRL
  • Get a confidential consultation on direct parcel import to USA, Canada, EU

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Written by Tim Byrnes